Loving-kindness

Loving-Kindness Meditation and Change – HuffPost

Loving-Kindness Meditation and Change

Posted: 10/02/2013 7:58 am
By Angela Wilson, MA, RYT

One increasingly popular form of meditation is loving-kindness meditation (LKM), the practice of wishing oneself and others to be happy, content and at ease. In the yoga tradition, loving-kindness is seen as an opportunity to “cultivate the opposite.”

Where many meditation techniques encourage students to explore difficult feelings or emotions directly, in loving-kindness the invitation is to send well wishes to oneself (who is in distress) as well as the other (who we feel distress toward). This isn’t meant to suppress the feelings as they arise, but instead it can be thought of as a soothing balm, something gently placed on a wound for healing.

Over the past several years, as meditation research has become more prevalent, science has become interested in the effects of loving-kindness practice on the mind and the body. Under the guidance of such well-known contemplatives as the Dalai Lama, researchers believed that LKM would offer similar benefits to other forms of meditation, such as breath meditation or open-awareness meditation.

As it turns out, LKM offers unique benefits that are subtly different from other kinds of meditation. What are those differences? Some just might surprise you.

LKM is a key tool for an optimal life.

One benefit of LKM is that loving-kindness reduces the stress response. Those who practice even a short course of LKM (say over the course of eight weeks) experience less distress than those who do not by the end of those eight weeks, according to this study. Probably no huge surprise there, right?

However, further exploration into this practice may intrigue you. The study on the effect of compassion meditation also investigated the impact of LKM on the body’s inflammatory and neuroendocrine system. At first preliminary results revealed that LKM showed no discernable differences in inflammation compared to the control group.

However, when divided into high-practice group verses low-practice group (i.e., those who practiced LKM each day compared to those with minimal practice) the results became more striking. The high-practice group saw a significant decrease in inflammation compared to the low-practice and no-practice groups. This research highlights two important findings. First, that not only can LKM subjectively reduce distress, but it can impact the body’s physiology as well (in this case, LKM reduced inflammation). The second, equally noteworthy finding is that this only happened for those who activity engaged in the practice of LKM. Simply attending a meditation class once a week was not enough to produce a change. Students had to practice at least a little each day.

Another pivotal study in the investigation of LKM was conducted by positive psychology researcher Barbara Fredrickson. Dr. Fredrickson and her team investigated the impact of LKM not only on emotions, but also on how this practice could actually build personal resources (cognitive, emotional and physical). Her research team invited a group of people to practice LKM over the course of nine weeks. Participants in the LKM group had to practice at least a little every day, and researchers measured subjects on a variety of outcomes — including their experiences of positive emotions, their immunity to illness and their relationships to others. Her question: Could LKM actually build a person’s personal resources?

It did. In their seminal research paper, Dr. Fredrickson and her team write,

The practice of LKM led to shifts in people’s daily experiences of a wide range of positive emotions, including love, joy, gratitude, contentment, hope, pride, interest, amusement and awe. These shifts in positive emotions took time to appear and were not large in magnitude, but over the course of nine weeks, they were linked to increases in a variety of personal resources, including mindful attention, self-acceptance, positive relationships with others and good physical health… They enabled people to become more satisfied with their lives and to experience fewer symptoms of depression.

These findings are powerful.

The Brain on LKM.

So we know that LKM positively impacts our emotions, our physical health, our sense of connection. But does that translate to an impact on the brain?

Neuroscientific meditation researcher Richard Davidson from the University of Wisconsin became interested in just that question. He has extensively studied the effect of meditation, including LKM, on the brain. He had a simple question. Would LKM change the brain? To investigate the exact implication of this practice on the brain he invited two groups of subjects into his lab: those who had at least 10,000 hours of LKM under their meditative belt and those who were interested, but new to meditation. He invited both these groups into the fMRI scanner to see how LKM would impact the brain.

The results were clear. The practice of LKM changed several important brain regions: both the insula and the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) lit up as a result of LKM. The insula is the part of the brain responsible for our ability to empathize with others, and to make oneself aware of emotional and physical present-moment experiences. While both groups saw an increase in insula activity, the group with 10,000 hours of experience showed significantly more activation than the other group. This group was experiencing higher levels of compassion than the non-practicing group.

A similar finding appeared for the TPJ. The TPJ, like the insula, is also related to our ability to process empathy and our ability to attune to the emotional states of others. Again, compared to short-term meditators, those with a long-term meditation practice showed significant activation of this brain region.

Loving-kindness creates feelings of social connection.

Given this research, it is no surprise that LKM has been shown to increase social connectedness, even for strangers. A study conducted by a group of researchers from Stanford University found that in just seven minutes of LKM, subjects reported greater social connection toward others. Other studies have shown that the feeling of social connection can predict changes in a person’s vagal tone (a physiological measurement of resilience and overall well-being).

As a yoga teacher for Kripalu’s Frontline Providers Program, I have the opportunity to teach the Loving-Kindness practice to members of a workforce who are at high risk for compassion fatigue — health-care providers. In just the 10 minutes that I invite participants to practice LKM toward themselves and others, something powerful emerges. Some students begin to cry. Some bring their hand softly to their heart. Some physically relax. Afterward, when I invite the group to look around at each other, the sense of connection is palpable.

What is striking about the research and about the experience teaching is that these changes can happen in a short amount of time. Concentrated practice is essential. Even a few minutes creates a shift, and that shift is marked.

The Dalai Lama has been quoted as saying, “This is my simple religion. There is no need for temples; no need for complicated philosophy. Our own brain, our own heart is our temple; the philosophy is kindness.” And indeed, it seems that in fact, with a little practice, LKM has the potential not only to improve our connection with ourselves, but to foster deeper connection and care for others as well.

For more from Kripalu, click here.

For more on mindfulness, click here.

A Meditation For Promoting Peace Within Ourselves

Being at peace with ourselves in our life begins within. I teach my clients to become the expert of themselves and that everything they experience in the external world is a reflection of their internal world.

One of the techniques clients learn is to use mindfulness meditation to improve their relationship with their body and I have adapted a meditation that is simple to use and helpful in this process.

The adaption comes from the Buddhist mediation Metta Bhavana Meditation, which means “Loving Kindness Cultivation.”

The aim is to feel more appreciative of ourselves and helps the individual to feel more integrated and less prone to internal conflict. The basic psychological principle recognises that if we can’t feel good about ourselves, then we are less likely to be able to feel good about other people.

So a metta bhavana meditation session leads from concern with oneself, to a concern for others.

You begin with self reflection and the project this to others. It’s a process of using your imagination in a powerful and positive way that feels really good. It’s simple and can be done anywhere. I recently was visiting NYC for some book promotion work and did this on the trains to-and-from the city.

With a comfortable but dignified posture connect with your breath by noticing the inhale and exhale. Notice your thoughts coming and going. If your mind wanders, bring it back to the breath. The breath is an anchor for the present moment.

Reflect: What is it that other people like about you? What do you think you are good at? What achievements are you particularly pleased with? Hold these good qualities in your mind for a little while, and feel good about yourself. Every now and again repeat to yourself “may I be well, may I be happy, may I be free from suffering.”

Project: Imagine a friend. What is it that you like about your friend? What do you think they are good at in particular? What do you think they should be most pleased with? Hold these good qualities in your mind for a little while, and feel good about your friend. Every now and again in your mind’s eye say to them “may you be well, may you be happy, may you be free from suffering.”

Reflect: Repeat to yourself “may I be well, may I be happy, may I be free from suffering.”

The cycle is to reflect onto oneself and then project onto others and repeat. Continue this pattern opening up to imagining an acquaintance or neutral person, then you can move to a stranger, then move to someone who would be difficult for you to feel or wish goodness towards.

Let it be OK that it may be difficult at first to wish well to someone you dislike! With practice you develop compassion for all while developing your self-compassion.

In my own practice, I have simplified the practice and I encourage my clients to adapt a practice that feels right to them. I like to imagine a beam of green light coming out of my chest which is the heart center chakra and this light extends out of me in every direction; first I start with it beaming out ahead of me as far as I can imagine into the horizon.

I use the shortened version of the mantra beginning with me, focusing on my breathing, being in my own space I repeat “may I be well, may I be happy” then with the light extending out to others, “may you be well, may you be happy” – repeating and extending in every direction – ahead, behind, side to side, above, below and all around.

It’s very relaxing and by the time I arrived from a hectic morning commute I was Zen.

Taking a few minutes out of your day to reflect and project loving kindness will cultivate a peacefulness within that can open you to experiencing more love in your life.

A good time to pave out a loving kindness for your day is first thing in the morning, while you are awakening in bed or in the shower. Be sure to include your immediate family in it as well. Notice how your interactions with others are improved.

via A Meditation For Promoting Peace Within Ourselves | Weightless.